Publications


NO Author Name Title Year of publication
1 1. Abraham, Z.S., Ntunaguzi, D., Kahinga, A.A., Mapondella, K.B., Massawe, E.R., Nkuwi, E.J. and Nkya, A. Prevalence and etiological agents for chronic suppurative otitis media in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania 2019
2 3. Akan G, Kisenge P, Sanga TS, Mbugi E, Adolf I, Turkcan MK, Janabi M, Atalar F. Common SNP-based haplotype analysis of the 9p21. 3 gene locus as predictor coronary artery disease in Tanzanian population 2019
3 4. Aluisio, A.R., Waheed, S., Cameron, P., Hess, J., Jacob, S.T., Kissoon, N., Levine, A.C., Mian, A., Ramlakhan, S., Sawe, H.R. and Razzak, J. Clinical emergency care research in low-income and middle-income countries: opportunities and challenges 2019
4 5. Asano H, Hiraoka T, Seki Y, Shibata T, Osada H, Saruta T, Hatsusaka N, Fujikake F, Tabata Y, Mhina C, Sanyiwa A Distribution of corneal spherical aberration in a Tanzanian population 2019
5 6. Bashaka, P.J., Sawe, H.R., Mwafongo, V., Mfinanga, J.A., Runyon, M.S. and Murray, B.L. Undernourished children presenting to an urban emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania 2019
6 7. Conway, D., Albright, P., Eliezer, E., Haonga, B., Morshed, S. and Shearer, D.W. The burden of femoral shaft fractures in Tanzania 2019
7 8. Fonner, Virginia A., Jessie K. Mbwambo, Caitlin E. Kennedy, and Michael D. Sweat. The gendered experience of HIV testing: factors associated with prior testing differ among men and women in rural Tanzania 2019
8 9. S, Likindikoki S, Bonz AG, Joscelyne A, Kaysen D, Nixon RD, Njau T, Tankink MT, Tiwari Greene MC, Rees A, Ventevogel P. Developing an integrated intervention to address intimate partner violence and psychological distress in Congolese refugee women in Tanzania. 2019
9 Hassam I, Kisenge R, Aboud S, Manji K. . Association of vitamin D and diarrhoea in children aged less than five years at Muhimbili national hospital, Dar es Salaam 2019
10 Ibitoye M, Kaaya S, Parker R, Likindikoki S, Ngongi L, Sommer M. The influence of alcohol outlet density and advertising on youth drinking in urban Tanzania. 2019
11 Iversen PO, Abisay M, Seleki F, Majigo M, Luzzatto L, Makani J. Sickle cell disease, malaria and dengue fever: a case of triple Jeopardy. 2019
12 15. Kija EN, Saunders DE, Munubhi E, Darekar A, Barker S, Cox TC, Mango M, Soka D, Komba J, Nkya DA, Cox SE Transcranial Doppler and magnetic resonance in Tanzanian children with sickle cell disease. 2019
13 17. Kiponza, R., Balandya, B., Majigo, M.V. and Matee, M. Laboratory confirmed puerperal sepsis in a national referral hospital in Tanzania: etiological agents and their susceptibility to commonly prescribed antibiotics. 2019
14 19. Leddy, A.M., Mantsios, A., Davis, W., Muraleetharan, O., Shembilu, C., Mwampashi, A., Beckham, S.W., Galai, N., Likindikoki, S., Mbwambo, J. and Kerrigan, D. Essential elements of a community empowerment approach to HIV prevention among female sex workers engaged in project Shikamana in Iringa, Tanzania. 2019
15 Mbarak B, Kilewo C, Kuganda S, Sunguya BF Postpartum depression among women with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Tanzania; a call for integrative intervention. 2019
16 Dol, J., Kohi, T., Campbell-Yeo, M., Tomblin Murphy, G., Aston, M., & Mselle, L. Exploring maternal postnatal newborn care discharge education in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Barriers, facilitators and opportunities. 2019
17 Adellah Sariah, Joan Rugemalila, Joyce Protas, Eric Aris, Helen Siril, Edith Tarimo and David Urassa. Why did I stop? And why did I restart? Perspectives of women lost to follow-up in option B+ HIV care in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2019
18 Mwambete KD, Mpenda MH. Microbiological Quality of Street Vended Freshly Squeezed Sugar-cane Juices and Antimicrobial Resistance of Microbial Contaminants. 2019
19 1. Aibana O, Huang CC, Aboud S, Arnedo-Pena A, Becerra MC, Bellido-Blasco JB, Bhosale R, Calderon R, Chiang S, Contreras C, Davaasambuu G. Vitamin D status and risk of incident tuberculosis disease: A nested case-control study, systematic review, and individual-participant data meta-analysis. 2019
20 2. Kerrigan, D., Mbwambo, J., Likindikoki, S., Davis, W., Mantsios, A., Beckham, S.W., Leddy, A., Shembilu, C., Mwampashi, A., Aboud, S. and Galai, N. Project Shikamana: Community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention significantly impacts HIV incidence and care continuum outcomes among female sex workers in Iringa, Tanzania. 2019
21 3. Kija, E., Gidal, B.E., Shapson-Coe, A., Cader, S., van der Watt, G., Delport, S. and Wilmshurst, J.M., Vitamin D abnormalities and bone turn over analysis in children with epilepsy in the Western Cape of South Africa. 2019
22 4. Lauer JM, McDonald CM, Kisenge R, Aboud S, Fawzi WW, Liu E, Tran HQ, Gewirtz AT, Manji KP, Duggan CP. Markers of Systemic Inflammation and Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Are Not Reduced by Zinc or Multivitamins in Tanzanian Infants: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. 2019
23 5. Liu MB, Ali SH, Haonga BT, Eliezer EN, Albright PD, Morshed S, Shearer D. Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) Fin Nail versus SIGN Standard Intramedullary Nail for Distal Diaphyseal Femur Fractures Treated via Retrograde Approach. 2019
24 6. Menon S, Francis J, Zdraveska N, Dusabimana A, Bhattacharyya S. The epidemiology of intransient TB-induced hyperglycaemia in previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus 2 individuals: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019
25 7. Mtali YS, Lyimo MA, Luzzatto L, Massawe SN. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with an inflammatory state: evidence from hematological findings and cytokine levels. 2019
26 Nkinda, L., Patel, K., Njuguna, B., Ngangali, J.P., Memiah, P., Bwire, G.M., Majigo, M.V., Mizinduko, M., Pastakia, S.D. and Lyamuya, E., C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with dysglycemia in Tanzania. 2019
27 9. Pack AP, Sastry J, Tolley EE, Kaaya S, Headley J, Kaale A, Baumgartner JN. Stakeholder acceptability of adolescent participation in clinical trials for biomedical HIV prevention products: considerations from Tanzania and India. 2019
28 10. Pembe AB, Hirose A, Alwy Al‐beity F, Atuhairwe S, Morris JL, Kaharuza F, Marrone G, Hanson C. Rethinking the definition of maternal near‐miss in low‐income countries using data from 104 health facilities in Tanzania and Uganda. 2019
29 11. Rubagumya, F., Nyagabona, S.K., Msami, K.H., Manirakiza, A., Longombe, A.N., Maniragaba, T., Chan, H., Paciorek, A., Zhang, L., Balandya, E. and Germana, L.H. Attitudes and Barriers to Research Among Oncology Trainees in East Africa. 2019
30 Sawe HR, Akomeah A, Mfinanga JA, Runyon MS, Noste E Emergency medicine residency training in Africa: overview of curriculum 2019
31 Shayo FK, Shayo SC Availability and readiness of diabetes health facilities to manage tuberculosis in Tanzania: a path towards integrating tuberculosis-diabetes services in a high burden setting? 2019
32 Sommer M, Parker R, Msacky G, Kajula L, Kaaya S How Alcohol, Space, and Time Influence Young People’s Sexual Encounters in Tanzania: A Qualitative Analysis 2019
33 Sudfeld CR, Manji KP, Darling AM, Kisenge R, Kvestad I, Hysing M, Belinger DC, Strand TA, Duggan CP, Fawzi WW. Effect of antenatal and infant micronutrient supplementation on middle childhood and early adolescent development outcomes in Tanzania. 2019
34 Urio F, George H, Tluway F, Nyambo TB, Mmbando BP, Makani J. Prevalence and factors associated with Human Parvovirus B19 infection in Sickle Cell patients hospitalized in Tanzania. 2019
35 Valtis, Y.K., Rosenberg, J.D., Wachter, K., Kisenge, R., Mashili, F., Mallya, R.C., Walker, T.D., Kabakambira, J.D., Egide, A., Ntacyabukura, B. and Weintraub, R Better evidence: prospective cohort study assessing the utility of an evidence-based clinical resource at the University of Rwanda. 2019
36 Wonkam A, Makani J. Sickle cell disease in Africa: an urgent need for longitudinal cohort studies. 2019
37 IddaH. Mosha, Mangi J. Ezekiel, WinfridaOnesmo&AmonSabasaba Prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women living in informal settlements in Iringa Tanzania: A cross sectional study. 2019
38 G. Frumence, M. Goodman, J. J. Chebet, I. Mosha, D. Bishanga, D. Chitama, P. J. Winch, J. Killewo& A. H. Baqui. Factors affecting early identification of pregnant women by community health workers in Morogoro, Tanzania, 2019
39 AnithaMugassa and FrumenceGasto Factors influencing the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Services in Tanzania: A health system perspective from national and district levels 2019
40 NiwaelMtui-Malamsha, Raphael Sallu, Gladys R. Mahiti, Hussein Mohamed Moses OleNeselle, BachanaRubegwa, Emmanuel S. Swai, SelemaniMakungu, Edward G. Otieno, Athuman M. Lupindu, Erick Komba, Robinson Mdegela, Justine A. Assenga, Jubilate Bernard, Walter Marandu, JamesWarioba, ZachariaMakondo, Jelly Chang’a, FurahaMramba, HezronNonga , JaphetKillewo,FredKafeero , Yilma J. Makonnen, Ariel L. Rivas and Folorunso O. Fasina Ecological and Epidemiological Findings Associated With Zoonotic Rabies Outbreaks and Control in Moshi, Tanzania 2019
41 Dockx, K.; Van Remoortel, H.; De Buck, E.; Schelstraete, C.; Vanderheyden, A.; Lievens, T.; Kinyagu, J.T.; Mamuya, S.; Vandekerckhove, P. Effect of Contextualized Versus Non-Contextualized Interventions for Improving Hand Washing, Sanitation, and Health in Rural Tanzania: Study Design of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. 2019
42 Moen B.E. Deressa W &MamuyaSHD The Challenge of capacity building in occupational health: Experiences from Tanzania, Ethiopia and Norwary 2019
43 Ndomondo M, Mselle L. The perception of induced abortion and its ethical implication among women of reproductive age in Mtwara 2019
44 Greenspan JA, Chebet JJ, Mpembeni R, Mosha I, Mpunga M, Winch PJ, Killewo J, Baqui AH, McMahon SA Men's roles in care seeking for maternal and newborn health: a qualitative study applying the three delays model to male involvement in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. 2019
45 Shelley KD, Mpembeni R, Frumence G, Stuart EA, Killewo J, Baqui AH, Peters DH Integrating Community Health Worker Roles to Improve Facility Delivery Utilization in Tanzania: Evidence from an Interrupted Time Series Analysis. 2019
46 Katende A, Mbwanji G, Faini D, Nyuri A, Kalinjuma AV, Mnzava D, Hullsiek KH, Rhein J, Weisser M, Meya DB, Boulware DR, Letang E Short course amphotericin B in addition to sertraline and fluconazole for treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in rural Tanzania 2019
47 Patenaude BN, Semali I, Killewo J, Bärnighausen T The Value of a Statistical Life-Year in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence From a Large Population-Based Survey in Tanzania. 2019
48 Iseselo MK, Mosha IH, Killewo J, Sekei LH, Outwater AH. Can training interventions in entrepreneurship, beekeeping, and health change the mind-set of vulnerable young adults toward self-employment? A qualitative study from urban Tanzania 2019
49 Mtui-Malamsha N, Sallu R, Mahiti GR, Mohamed H, OleNeselle M, Rubegwa B, Swai ES, Makungu S, Otieno EG, Lupindu AM, Komba E, Mdegela R, Assenga JA, Bernard J, Marandu W, Warioba J, Makondo Z, Chang'a J, Mramba F, Nonga H, Killewo J, Kafeero F, Makonnen YJ, Rivas AL, Fasina FO Ecological and Epidemiological Findings Associated with Zoonotic Rabies Outbreaks and Control in Moshi, Tanzania, 2017-2018. 2019
50 Lwidiko E. Mhamilawa, BeritAydin-Schmidt, Bruno P. Mmbando, Billy Ngasala and Ulrika Morris Detection of Plasmodium falciparum by Light Microscopy, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, and Polymerase Chain Reaction on Day 3 after Initiation of Artemether–Lumefantrine Treatment for Uncomplicated Malaria in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania: A Comparative Trial. 2019
51 Ngasala B,Matata F, Mwaiswelo R, Mmbando BP Anemia among Schoolchildren with Malaria and Soil-Transmitted HelminthCoinfection after Repeated Rounds of Mass Drug Administration in Muheza District, Tanzania 2019
52 NgasalaB,Mutemi DD, Mwaiswelo RO Diagnostic Performance of Malaria RapidDiagnostic Test and Microscopy Compared with PCR for Detection of Plasmodiumfalciparum Infections among Primary Schoolchildren in Kibiti District, EasternTanzania: An Area with Moderate Malaria Transmission 2019
53 Lin JT, Parr JB, Ngasala B Non-falciparum malaria in Africa and learning from P. vivax in Asia. 2019
54 WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network Methodology Study Group. Competing risk events in antimalarial drug trials in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network individual participant data meta-analysis. 2019
55 Ngasala B, Bushukatale S Evaluation of malaria microscopy diagnostic performance at private health facilities in Tanzania 2019
56 Minja IK, Kahabuka FK and Masalu, JR. Establishment of a joint research-based education in dentistry in Norway and East Africa 2019
57 Methew D. Ndomondo& Lilian T. Mselle: The perception of induced abortion and its ethical implication among women of reproductive age in Mtwara Tanzania: A qualitative study. 2019
58 Dol, J., Kohi, T., Campbell-Yeo, M., Tomblin Murphy, G., Aston, M., & Mselle, L. Exploring maternal postnatal newborn care discharge education in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Barriers, facilitators and opportunities 2019
59 Lilian T. Mselle, Thecla W. Kohi and Justine Dol. Humanizing birth in Tanzania: a qualitative study on the (mis) treatment of women during childbirth from the perspective of mothers and fathers, 2019
60 Bwire GM, Majigo MV, Nkinda L Elevated Immune Responses an Evidence of Protection against Malaria Infection in Sickle Hemoglobin Individuals 2019
61 Katunzi L, Bwire GM, Kalabashanga J, Nkinda L, Mawazo A, et al Diagnostic accuracy of dipsticks test among clinically suspected urinary tract infected patients at National Hospital, Tanzania. 2019
62 Lugoba M, Kilonzi M, Bwire GM, Ndayishimiye P, Mikomangwa WP, et al Immunological outcomes between Tenofovir versus Zidovudine-based regimens: a retrospective cohort study 2019
63 Faustine Tungaraza, Augustino S. Kahere, George M. Bwire, Doreen Mloka, Fatuma F. Felician, Liberata Mwita, Raphael Z. Sangeda, Esther J. Ndegeulaya, Fidelis F. Manyaki1, Manase Kilonzi, Wigilya P. Mikomangwa, Hamu J. Mlyuka, Alphonce I. Marealle, Ritah Mutagonda, Anna Sanga, Kennedy D. Mwambete. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome during the first six months of receiving antiretroviral in HIV-infected individuals: a retrospective study 2019
64 Mlugu, E., Tibalinda, P., Shedafa, R., & Kaale, E. Formulation Development and Optimization of Taste Masked Generic Fast Dissolving Zinc Sulphate Tablets 2019
65 Boaz Cairo, George M Bwire and Kennedy D Mwambete Carriage Profile of Transient Oral Bacteria among Dar es Salaam Hypertensive Patients and its Association to Hypertension. 2019
66 Mikomangwa WP, Madende NA, Kilonzi M, Mlyuka HJ, Ndayishimiye P, Marealle AI, Mutagonda R Unlawful dispensing practice of diazepam: a simulated client approach in community pharmacies in the north-west of Dar-es-Salaam region, Tanzania 2019
67 Mwakalukwa R, Ashour A, Amen Y, Niwa Y, Tamrakar S, Miyamoto T, Shimizu K Anti-allergic activity of polyphenolic compounds isolated from olive mill wastes 2019
68 Elsbaey M, Mwakalukwa R, Shimizu K, Miyamoto T. Pentacylic triterpenes from Lavandula coronopifolia: structure related inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase 2019
69 George M Bwire and Kennedy D Mwambete Immunological Perspectives of sub-Saharan Populations under Prophylaxis against Malaria 2019
70 Wande DP, Sangeda RZ, Tibalinda P, Mutta IK, Mkumbwa S, Bitegeko A, Kaale E. Pharmaceuticals imports in Tanzania: Overview of private sector market size, share, growth and projected trends to 2021 2019
71 Nchangwi S. Munung, Victoria P. Nembaware, Jantina De Vries, Daima Bukini, Furahini Furahini Tluway, Marsha Treadwell, Raphael Zozimus Sangeda, Gaston K. Mazandu, Mario Jonas, Vivian Paintsil, Obiageli E. Nnodu, Emmanuel Balandya, Julie Makani and Ambroise Wonkam. Establishing a Multi-Country Sickle Cell Disease Registry in Africa 2019
72 Mikomangwa WP, Minzi OMS, Aklillu E, Kamuhabwa AAR Adverse birth outcomes among mothers who received intermittent preventive treatment with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine in the low malaria transmission region 2019
73 Ruggajo P, Shoo May, Jonathan I, Mngumi J, Fredrick F, Chillo P, Kamuhabwa A Anaemia in Patients on Haemodialysis Therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2019
74 Chillo, P., & Mujuni, E. Prevalence and predictors of left ventricular dysfunction among patients with chronic kidney disease attending Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania 2018
75 Coralic, Z., Sawe, H. R., Mfinanga, J. A., Cortez, A., Koehl, J., Siroker, H., & Reynolds, T. A. Ketamine procedural sedation in the emergency department of an urban tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2018
76 Custer, B., Zou, S., Glynn, S. A., Makani, J., Tayou Tagny, C., El Ekiaby, M., . . . Engelgau, M. M Addressing gaps in international blood availability and transfusion safety in low- and middle-income countries 2018
77 Ekoru, K., Young, E. H., Dillon, D. G., Gurdasani, D., Stehouwer, N., Faurholt-Jepsen, D., Faurholt-Jepsen, D., Levitt, N. S., Crowther, N. J., Nyirenda, M., Njelekela, M. A. Ramaiya, K.. . . Sandhu, M. S HIV treatment is associated with a two-fold higher probability of raised triglycerides: Pooled Analyses in 21 023 individuals in sub-Saharan Africa 2018
78 Etheredge, A. J., Manji, K., Kellogg, M., Tran, H., Liu, E., McDonald, C. M., . . . Duggan, C. P. Markers of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Are Associated With Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Tanzanian Children. 2018
79 Mwilike, B., Shimoda, K., Oka, M., Leshabari, S., Shimpuku, Y. and Horiuchi, S., A feasibility study of an educational program on obstetric danger signs among pregnant adolescents in Tanzania: A mixed-methods study. 2018
80 Abraham, Z.S., Alawy, K., Massawe, E.R., Ntunaguzi, D., Kahinga, A.A. and Mapondella, K.B., 2018. Prevalence of hearing loss and associated factors among neonates in Zanzibar. 2018
81 Lukumay, G.G., Ndile, M.L., Outwater, A.H., Mkoka, D.A., Padyab, M., Saveman, B.I. and Backteman-Erlanson, S. Provision of post-crash first aid by traffic police in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross-sectional survey. 2018
82 Haruna, T.S., Assenga, E. and Shayo, J. A qualitative study on the voluntariness of counselling and testing for HIV amongst antenatal clinic attendees: do women have a choice? 2018
83 Makani, J., Tluway, F., Makubi, A., Soka, D., Nkya, S., Sangeda, R., Mgaya, J., Rwezaula, S., Kirkham, F.J., Kindole, C. and Osati, E. A ten year review of the sickle cell program in Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. 2018
84 Hsu, L., Nnodu, O.E., Brown, B.J., Tluway, F., King, S., Dogara, L.G., Patil, C., Shevkoplyas, S.S., Lettre, G., Cooper, R.S. and Gordeuk, V.R. White Paper: Pathways to Progress in Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa.  2018
85 Dilunga, G.D., Sawe, H.R., Kulola, I.B., Mfinanga, J.A., Lucumay, N.J., Mulesi, E.M. and Weber, E.J. Pain assessment and management of trauma patients in an emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. 2018
86 Koka, P.M., Sawe, H.R., Mbaya, K.R., Kilindimo, S.S., Mfinanga, J.A., Mwafongo, V.G., Wallis, L.A. and Reynolds, T.A. Disaster preparedness and response capacity of regional hospitals in Tanzania: a descriptive cross-sectional study 2018
87 Marealle, A.I., Mbwambo, D.P., Mikomangwa, W.P., Kilonzi, M., Mlyuka, H.J. and Mutagonda, R.F. A decade since sulfonamide-based anti-malarial medicines were limited for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria among pregnant women in Tanzania. 2018
88 Ahmed, A., Makame, J., Robert, F., Julius, K., & Mecky, M. Sero-prevalence and spatial distribution of Rift Valley fever infection among agro-pastoral and pastoral communities during Interepidemic period in the Serengeti ecosystem, northern Tanzania 2018
89 Carter, R. C., Kupka, R., Manji, K., McDonald, C. M., Aboud, S., Erhardt, J. G., . . . Duggan, C. P. Zinc and multivitamin supplementation have contrasting effects on infant iron status: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 2018
90 Ekoru, K., Young, E. H., Dillon, D. G., Gurdasani, D., Stehouwer, N., Faurholt-Jepsen, D., Faurholt-Jepsen, D., Levitt, N. S., Crowther, N. J., Nyirenda, M., Njelekela, M. A. Ramaiya, K.. . . Sandhu, M. S. HIV treatment is associated with a two-fold higher probability of raised triglycerides: Pooled Analyses in 21 023 individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. 2018
91 Leddy, A. M., Kerrigan, D., Kennedy, C. E., Mbwambo, J., Likindikoki, S., & Underwood, C. R. 'You already drank my beer, I can decide anything': using structuration theory to explore the dynamics of alcohol use, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers in Tanzania 2018
92 LeFevre, A., Mpembeni, R., Kilewo, C., Yang, A., An, S., Mohan, D., . . . George, A. S. Program assessment of efforts to improve the quality of postpartum counselling in health centers in Morogoro region, Tanzania 2018
93 Marealle AI, Siervo M, Wassel S, Bluck L, Prentice AM, Minzi O, Sasi P, Kamuhabwa A, Soka D, Makani J, Cox SE A pilot study of a non-invasive oral nitrate stable isotopic method suggests that arginine and citrulline supplementation increases whole-body NO production in Tanzanian children with sickle cell disease. 2018
94 Dr.Erasto Vitus Mbugi Nutritional Immunology, Molecular Biology of Infectious (Malaria and Tuberculosis) and Non Infectious Tropical Diseases in understanding pathogenic strain variation, antigenicity and genetic markers of drug resistance. 2016